Mother of five, grandmother, photographer,editor, stewardess, IFBB chairwoman and competition Judge handles more tasks at 51 than most women are capable of at 21.
Consistent exercise and proper diet help her nullify the slow-down associated with aging.
Bed rest similarly results in a decreased cardiac output and stroke volume.
Systolic blood pressure [pressure at the contraction of the heart, as opposed to diastolic pressure when the heart is expanding and filling with blood] increases with age and weightlessness. A study group exercised eight subjects 55-78 years of age and noted a fall in systolic blood pressure, indicating that at least some of the supposed age change may be due to inactivity.
In astronauts, the sense of balance is decreased, but a program of in-bed exercise can largely offset this loss. Physical inactivity, weightlessness and aging all result in a loss of body water. One researcher reported a decrease of body water from 62% of body-weight at the age of 25 to 53% at the age of 75. In one bed-rest study, plasma volume fell 11%, 15% in another.
The cellular components of blood show kindred alterations with age and inactivity, and in the astronauts in the Skylab program. In all three circumstances, red blood cell mass is diminished. One research group reported decreased production of red cells and lymphocytes as the result of space flight. Aging and physical inactivity share an increased tendency to blood clotting.
Among the most commonly noted physical changes with age is a loss of lean bodymass. Accompanying this are a loss of bodyweight and a relative increase of bodyfat. Protein wastage is evidenced by an increased nitrogen excretion in the urine. As a person is put to bed, the identical changes areseen. One researcher reported that 40 of the 43 astronauts suffered a net loss of 2.8 kilograms, or slightly more than five pounds, of bodymass during flight.
Numerous workers have shown that an active exercise program is able to reverse the body composition changes in older people. For example, masterclass athletes have less than 14% bodyfat in contrast to the 30% or more of the average older person. In a similar way, the decreased muscle strengthshown to accompany aging, inactivity and weightlessness can be counteracted by a program of active muscle use.
Calcium wastage is consistently recorded as one of the hallmarks of the aging process. Osteoporosis and hip and vertebral fractures are the epidemic results of this process.
Bed rest and immobilization are accompanied by calcium deficit. The Skylab astronauts lost four grams of body calcium a month during space flights of up to 84 days. Researchers have estimated that the continued loss may preclude space missions more than nine months long unless effective countermeasures are developed. Such attempts are under way.
Attempts to correct the calcium loss by supine exercises (up to four hours daily of bicycling) have been unsuccessful. A group of researchers estimated that three hours of daily standing is the minimum effective duration to reverse the loss of calcium through disuse. As far as I know, there are no studies indicating that osteoporosis, once established, can be reversed or attenuated by a program of physical activity, although such a result would seem likely.
Metabolic and Regulatory Function
Most of the alterations described thus far have represented structural phenomena common to aging and inactivity. There exist corresponding functional changes as well. These range from slowed bowel functions to disordered glucose tolerance. Numerous workers have described the altered toleranceto glucose with aging to the extent that some correction of the standard normal values for the glucose tolerance test may be appropriate for age. Of interest is the observation that bed rest also causes a substantial intolerance to glucose. Vertically immobilized monkeys likewise demonstrated the glucose abnormality, indicating that decreased physical activity rather than gravity was the cause. The degree of abnormality is in proportion to the degree of immobilization, and doing isotonic and isometric exercises improves the defect.
The association of changes in sexual function and aging is renowned. The use of androgens and estrogens to offset the effects of aging has underlaid much “youth therapy.” Plasma testosterone levels are either unchanged or slightly lowered with age. Less fully appreciated are the observations that serum androgen levels decrease with enforced inactivity and increase with exercise. One research group reported that ambulatory men had a mean serum androgen level of 5.5 milligrams per liter, while 15 immobilized men had a mean value of 0.6 milligrams per liter. Similarly, immobilized monkeys show decreased (Continued on page 186)
Ernie Franz feels stronger at 45 than ever In his life. He’s the 1974 World Powerllftlng Champ, runner-up In two Mr. USA events, and holds numerous Masters powerllftlng records. This mighty deadllft at a Masters event was part of a total 2000 pounds that Ernie hefted In the three powerllftlng categories. His best lifts at 45 are: squat, 782; bench press, 470; deadllft, 760.
Your aging process — physical, emotional, mental and sexual decline — is accelerated through inactivity. And our author’s prescription for longevity? A lifetime of fitness!
by Walter Bortz II, MD
Reigning Mr. Olympia Chris Dickerson is also a student of ballet, acting and singing. Chris thinks bodybuilding is an equal art. He has spent years sculpting his physique so that, at 43, he appears as young and strong as competitors half his age. Jane Fonda, 45, trains with weights and does her famous aerobics for health and beauty. The confidence that exudes from a healthy, youthful appearance adds to her award-winning acting and contributes to her outspoken, independent character.
As we scan the time slope of our existences, it seems wise to inquire whether the decay curve contains any elements that may be subject to active intervention. As recently as a few years ago, arteriosclerosis was considered an inevitable consequence of the aging process, in effect an expression of”God’s will.” We now identify arteriosclerosis as a disease, as surely as tuberculosis, and thus subject to precise definition and prevention.
In reviewing the changes commonly attributed to the process of aging, I was struck by the coincidence of many of these with changes that accompany physical inactivity. The new science of space medicine has greatly expanded our understanding of the morbid physiology of enforced rest and weightlessness. By looking beyond ourselves, we are discovering more about what we are within. In this article I review the many similarities of the deterioration caused by aging and physical inactivity.
Certainly one of the most fundamental measurements that we can ap-
Condensed from JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association, with special permission of the author. JAMA 1982; 248: 1203-1208. Copyright 1982, American Medical Association.
Apply to ourselves is maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). The VO2 max declines with age, at about 1% a year. Research workers, however, have shown that a program of physical activity markedly alters this decline. A conditioning program for the inactive could recapture 40 years’ worth of VO2 max. It seems extremely unlikely that any future drug or physician-directed techniques will approach such a benefit. Similarly, bed rest deconditioning leads to a major decrease in VO2 max that can be largely offset by a program of in-bed exercises. Even chair rest has been reported to decrease VO2 max. On the other hand, trained athletes have high levels of VO2 max.
It is likely that the major determinant of the decline resides within the circulatory system. Cardiac output declines with age. This is largely a result of decreased stroke volume, since the resting heart rate does not change with age. It has been shown, however, that the maximal heart rate does. Both theisometric contraction phase and relaxation times are prolonged with age.
“VARIETY IS MY SPICE OF LIFE!”
to this new weight. They also adapt to a particular workout. By constantly changing my workouts, however, I am able to keep my muscles off-balance. I shock them so they can’t adapt to a consistent stress and they’re forced to grow larger and stronger. I never allow my muscles to adapt to a set type of workload. Essentially, I follow a sort of ‘nonroutine routine,’ and it works!” Like most bodybuilders, Rachel has a set off-season goal — to improve her overall proportion, symmetry and muscle mass. “Then during my pre-contest cycle,” she says, “I put the finishing touches on my physique, sharpening and polishing all the new muscular development I’ve acquired during my off-season training. I’m talking about the finest and most minute details of muscular definition that I can’t pay attention to in the off-season.
Off-Season vs Precontest Variants
“Prior to competition I’ll train six days per week, but in the off-season I’ll work out only four days a week, and I’ll postpone a scheduled training session for a day when I find that I can’t give a workout 100% of my energy and concentration. Off-season I’ll train each muscle group — even calves and abdominals — twice per week, because I can recuperate best on such a four-day split routine. Without full recuperation, it’s difficult to add
muscle mass to your physique.
“In my precontest phase I still work most of my muscle groups twice per week. The exception is abdominals, which I train up to six days each week. I rest a little less between sets prior to a competition, but I don’t really monitor my rest intervals that closely. Speed isn’t an intensity factor in my workouts, because I prefer to obtain my exercise intensity from using heavy weights with strong mental concentration during each set.
“On days when I have things to do or am feeling especially energetic I’ll zip through a workout. At other times, however, I prefer a more moderate pace that allows me to get optimally psyched up for each set. Then my workouts take a bit longer.”
Rachel’s training methods and workouts are fairly similar during both cycles, but she feels markedly stronger in the off-season, due to these three factors:
1) Her diet is more relaxed, so she has more energy than when following a precontest diet.
2) She isn’t doing as much aerobic training, which also improves the amount of energy she has available for each workout.
3) She is not as concerned with injuring herself, so she’s able to go all-out with heavy poundages virtually every workout.
“Prior to a competition, I tend to hold back in my training,” Rachel revealed. “I don’t need a joint or muscle injury when a contest is coming up, and I feel that this is when I’m most prone to injury. Most bodybuilders with whom I’ve talked also feel that they’re most susceptible to injury when their energy reserves are low close to a show.”
Sets, Reps per Bodypart
I asked Miss Olympia about the total number of sets she does for each bodypart. She answered, “Except for my abdominals, I do basically the same number of sets for each muscle group prior to a competition as I do in the off-season. For large muscle groups (back, chest and thighs) I’ll do twelve sets, for triceps nine, and for biceps and calves six. I hit abs with ten-twelve total sets each workout in the off-season and twelve-fifteen prior to a contest.
“Generally speaking, I do less total sets for a body part than most serious
Muscle & Fitness 81
“By constantly changing my workouts, I am able to keep my muscles off balance. I shock them so they can’t adapt to a consistent stress, and they are forced to grow larger and stronger.”
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SUPER ARM BLASTER
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Joe Welder regularly works with Tom Platz, Boyer Coe and other great stars. It’s his way of keeping his followers abreast of the latest developments to perfect the techniques that will be Incorporated Into the Welder System.
knowledge. In so doing I hope to educate bodybuilders and the public at large about the many practical and valuable applications of bodybuilding in everyday life.”
Joe continues to give bodybuilders a regular, reliable source of training information drawn from all spheres of scientific study — this periodical and a library of training books. As this data integrates into the accepted beliefs of bodybuilders, it exerts a meaningful influence on their performance. We will continue to see improvements in levels of muscular development. Today’s scientific champs have muscled up beyond the dreams of yesterday; today’s dreams will be shattered. This remains the underlying philosophy of Joe Weider: the creation of the ultimate physique.
That goal continues to flame Joe’s passion for more facts and information. Unlike the early days of the Weider Research Clinic at Abe Goldberg’s Gym in New York, there is a veritable torrent of new data coming in all the time. In order to help Joe make practical sense of this new information, he continues to enlist the help of scientific writers, thinkers and top bodybuilders.
Not only new training theories will be developed, but all the established Weider principles — such as the Instinctive, Overload, Peak Contraction and others — will be modified and expanded in light of the latest research. The current emphasis on combining maximum mental effort with physical training continues in articles by Charles Garfield and Peter Siegel, RH.
Joe Weider was a champion of light in the Dark Ages of the sport. Now Weider is at the vanguard of bodybuilding to usher the sport into an age of enlightenment. We can fully expect to see a continuation of the current trend towards increased public appeal and acceptance. But that doesn’t detract from Joe’s dedication to the hardcore bodybuilders like myself and many of his nearly two million readers who primarily depend on m&f to teach us the fastest possible way to develop our physiques to the maximum. While bodybuilding is broadening in appeal, muscle always was and always will be our goal. As long as it remains so, muscle & fitness will be our Bible. D sue further research, then Joe would stimulate others to carry on the important work he’d initiated some 30 years prior.
As Joe wrote editorials and published articles on the chemistry and pharmacology of bodybuilding, the latest designs in equipment, controversial training and nutritional theories, and especially seminal pieces suggesting bodybuilding’s place in holistic lifestyle, he stimulated among readers and students a reasoned interest and enthusiasm for knowledge, and developed rational objective principles.
Joe’s publications opened a flow of articles from the world’s most eminent exercise physiologists, sports-medicine specialists, nutritional scientists, and psychologists eager to pronounce the latest information pertinent to bodybuilding. Articles replete with scientific information couched in language the bodybuilder and lay person could understand came from experts with doctorate degrees, such as Michael Yessis, who wrote on the latest research-derived techniques to achieve power and greater mass; James Wright, on the effects of drugs; Charles Garfield, on the psychology of peak performance; Ellington Darden, on Nautilus training, and Per Tesch, on physiology. Joe’s long-expounded theories, gained by him and his champions through practical experience in the gym, were now being verified by scientists in the labs. Theory and practice combined into a cohesive package that added immeasurably to the prestige of the Weider Research Clinic and the credibility of muscle & fitness magazine.
As the sport’s traditionalists grew increasingly resentful over the loss of their stranglehold on the bodybuilders’ collective thinking, they scrambled for rebuttals, offering such as, “Bodybuilding is becoming too scientific.” Resolute in his conviction that bodybuilding could flourish only through more scientific research and investigation, Joe responded, “To say that bodybuilding is too scientific is like saying the NASA moon mission was too scientific, which, of course, is ludicrous. For the bodybuilder of today there is no such thing as too much knowledge. My primary concern as the founder of the Weider System and the publisher of muscle & fitness is to continue integrating new facts and concepts into our existing body of
Even in Europe, where Jacques Neuville and Bertil Fox hail from, the Weider System Is widely used and respected.
For decades bodybuilding has been a house divided by faith and reason. Until the editorial thrust of muscle & fitness began a Revival of Learning some years back, this dualism was of no particular concern. Although scientific weight-training principles existed, reason and intellect tended to be subordinate to faith and tradition in bodybuilding circles.
The elevation of the rational approach was bound to create conflict. Traditionalists are up in arms as the regimen to which they’ve been faithful is systematically dismantled by exercise physiologists, nutrionists and doctors. The old hands smart most when confronted by bodybuilders imbued with the inquisitive spirit of the discoverers who write articles for
MUSCLE & FITNESS.
The founding father and first scientific thinker of modern bodybuilding, Joe Weider, felt he had an obligation to lift bodybuilding from its stultification, despite the impassioned whinnies of the old-fashioned believers. If public acceptance of bodybuilding were to grow, Joe knew that he’d have to change the thinking of the scientific community — particularly in medicine — about the real value of weight training and bodybuilding.
When a young Joe Weider developed his revolutionary theories in the 40s, he had an abundance of time to pursue his intellectual curiosity with the energy of 10 men. He had accepted a monumental labor — to advance bodybuilding toward creation of the ultimate physique. Joe was able to spend the extra time with his training necessary to develop a roadbed of experience to assure his footing on his investigative path. Training the champs allowed him to objectively observe, with the dispassionate eye of a scientist, the cause-and-effect relationship involved in various approaches to training.
By the 70s, however, Joe’s business had flourished, forcing him to abandon his highly personal investigations in the science of bodybuilding. Yet he hadn’t lost awareness that without the driving force of his energy to keep the science of bodybuilding In its ascendancy, it would lose its hard-earned public acceptance. A problem solver, Joe Weider satisfied the demands on his time and bodybuilding commitment this way: If his responsibilities didn’t allow him to pur-
At various points in their careers, Lance Dreher and newly crowned Mr. Olympia Chris Dickerson have used the principles of the Weider System for maximum results. Inside The Weider System
CREATING THE ULTIMATE PHYSIQUE
MUSCLE & FITNESS Updates the Science of Bodybuilding
by Mike Mentzer, Mr. Universe, Mr. America, Member/Weider Research Clinic
“The search for rules, the only possible way to understand such a vast and complex universe, is called science. The universe forces those who live in it to understand it. Those creatures who find everyday existence a muddled jumble of events with no predictability, no regularity are in grave peril. The universe belongs to those who at least to some degree have figured it out.…”
—Carl Sagan, Broca’s Brain
Three-time Olympia champ Frank Zane and German star Jusup Wilkosz have contributed much to the Weider Research Clinic and have used many of the Weider Principles In their training.
WEIGHT TRAINING BENEFITS
1) strength — Develops maximum strength potential, balanced through out the body.
2) aerobic power — Limited development (except through circuits); uses anaerobic, or nonoxygen, metabolism.
3) endurance — Ability to perform many brief strength tasks during an extended time period.
4) flexibility — Develops balanced muscular pull on bones; stresses muscles, not joints, while moving through a full range of motion.
5) injury — Strengthens muscle, tendon and bone tissue; proper form eliminates resistance overload; teaches muscle control for improved application of strength skill.
6) nutrition — Teaches proper diet for most efficient maintenance and construction of cell tissue and for fat loss.
7) recuperation — Included in routine to permit tissue growth; allows 48 hours recovery time for most muscle groups.
8) appearance — Filled-out, balanced physical development.
9) outlook — Confidence and self-esteem, industriousness, and successful goal fulfillment.
1) strength — Slightly improves leg strength, which is offset by excessive quadriceps and lower back development and no upper body development.